Applications of Paper Chromatography

Paper chromatography has evolved over the years and has found widespread applications in separation of molecules of different polarities. Innumerable applications have been reported in analysis of different classes of compounds such as:

  • Amino acids and organic acids
  • Alkaloids
  • Polysaccharides
  • Proteins and peptides
  • Natural and artificial pigments
  • Inorganic cations
  • Plant extracts

Typical applications in key areas are briefly outlined here

Reaction monitoring

In a chemical reaction over a period of time the concentration of reactants decreases whereas the concentration of products increases. Developing the chromatogram over different time intervals by spotting the reactants can give a fair idea on the progress of reaction. Traditionally the technique was used for qualitative monitoring but availability of densitometers made quantitative estimations possible. However, rapid methods using spectroscopic techniques are limiting the application of paper chromatography as a reaction monitoring option.

Isolation & Purification

Paper chromatography has been put to use as a purification and isolation technique for components of mixtures. The separated components on the paper are cut, dissolved in suitable solvents and their absorption characterised at specific wavelengths using spectrophotometric methods. This approach is being superseded by techniques such as Preparative HPLC.

Foods

food

Foods & Beverages

Paper chromatography has been primaly used for analysis of food colours in synthetic drinks and beverages, ice creams, jams &jellies, sweets,etc.Colours both natural and synthetic are added to foods to improve their acceptability and to make them more popular. Only edible colours are permitted for use so identification and quantification becomes all the more important to ensure that no non- permitted colouring agents are added to the foods.

Forensics

forensic

Forensic

 

A forensic scientist is often faced with a severe limitation on the quantity of sample available for analysis Paper chromatography offers a viable analysis option for samples available in milligrams or microlitre quantities.

The major applications are for identification and comparison against reference standards for drugs and their metabolites in viscera, explosive residues from blast sites, inks used in forgery of documents and paint pigments investigations in hit and run road accident cases.

Pharmaceuticals

pharma

Pharmaceutical Products

Paper chromatography provides useful information on development of new drug molecules, reaction completion and progress of manufacturing processes. It also offers a cost-effective alternative to monitoring the active ingredients in drug forms administered in bioanalytical studies. Its main contribution is when the quantity of sample available is in minute amounts.

In a subsequent article some reasons will be presented for justification of continued popularity of paper chromatography in the face of tough competition from more advanced chromatographic techniques.

About Dr. Deepak Bhanot

Dr Deepak Bhanot is a seasoned professional having nearly 30 years expertise beginning from sales and product support of analytical instruments. After completing his graduation and post graduation from Delhi University and IIT Delhi he went on to Loughborough University of Technology, UK for doctorate research in analytical chemistry. His mission is to develop training programs on analytical techniques and share his experiences with broad spectrum of users ranging from professionals engaged in analytical development and research as well as young enthusiasts fresh from academics who wish to embark upon a career in analytical industry.

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