Essentials of Mass Spectroscopy

Mass spectroscopy is distinctly different from other spectroscopic techniques. It has found large number of applications in several areas of basic research and product development covering pharmaceuticals, foods, environmental pollution monitoring, doping investigation in sports, pesticide residue analysis, biochemistry, clinical investigations and petroleum products analysis. The increasing popularity of mass spectroscopy results from its ability […]

How is Mass Spectroscopy different from other Spectroscopic Techniques?

Mass spectroscopy complements the information made available by other spectroscopic techniques. However, it is different in several respects from other optical spectroscopic methods of analysis and such differences will be highlighted in the present article. Optical Spectroscopic Techniques Optical Spectroscopic techniques provide qualitative and quantitative information on light absorbing or emitting species present in samples. The […]

Magnetic Resonance Imaging – a boon for medical diagnosis

NMR technique gave birth to Magnetic Resonance Imaging which proved to be a boon for the medical diagnosis professionals. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) revolutionized medical investigations by providing non-destructive and non-invasive means of tissue investigation prior to prescription. The technique is harmless as unlike X-rays and CT techniques which make use of ionizing radiations or radioactive […]

Scope of NMR Applications in Basic Research and Industry

NMR has established itself as a powerful tool in the hands of analytical scientist. It provides valuable structural details on small organic molecules, natural products, man- made synthesized materials, large biomolecules and other complex molecular entities with masses ranging upto around 100000 daltons. Both X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy complement each other and provide information […]

Safety in the NMR laboratory

Superconducting magnets have contributed immensely to the scope of applications of NMR technique. However, working in the vicinity of strong magnetic fields poses several hazards which cannot be overlooked and additional safety precautions are necessary in the NMR laboratory. The article highlights hazards associated with the NMR laboratory and suggests safety measures. The associated hazards are […]

Useful Tips on Sample Handling for NMR Studies

In comparison with handling of samples for other spectroscopic techniques samples for NMR analysis require special care. Failure to adhere to recommended practices can result in gross errors or even accidents. In the present article some guidelines are suggested to help avoid such situations. Sample Size Sample size of 1-10mg is sufficient for proton NMR […]

Desirable Characteristics of Solvents used for NMR Studies

NMR characterization employs a solvent for dissolution of the sample like any other spectroscopic technique. This is essential for homogenized distribution of sample molecules throughout the observation volume. The desirable characteristics of such solvents are: Solubility Higher solubility of sample in the chosen solvent contributes to higher sensitivity. This property assumes significance in cases where […]

Benefits of Superconducting NMR Magnets over Permanent Magnets

A Magnet is an essential component of MMR spectrometer. Its function is essentially to expose the sample to a strong homogeneous magnetic field. The sensitivity and resolution that can be achieved are in direct proportion to the applied field strength. Continuous wave 60 or 90 MHz instruments were popular in earlier days for routine NMR […]

Factors Influencing Chemical shifts of NMR active nuclei

NMR active nuclei are seldom found in isolation and even if they were to exist in isolation the NMR information revealed would be of little value to the NMR spectroscopist. The shielding and deshielding influence of electrons in the neighbourhood results in differences in resonance frequencies. The effective magnetic field becomes less than the applied magnetic […]

Advantages of FT – NMR over Continuous Wave NMR

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance helps provide structural details on molecules. It is based on transitions between nuclear spin states of NMR active nuclei by positioning the sample in an external magnetic field. Observations have been made on Continuous wave (CW) and FT – NMR techniques. The benefits of FT – NMR over CW – NMR are […]

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