1. Morphology: The basic purpose of identifying the morphological characteristics of a microorganism helps in determining what the microorganism could be.
3. Using microscope: A microscope is an essential thing in a microbiology lab to see most of the microorganisms which are not visible through naked eyes. Some microorganisms such as viruses require an electron microscope to be seen and not a simple microscope.
4. Biochemical tests: The purpose behind the biochemical test is to differentiate between various classes of bacteria based on their enzymatic activities.
Some of the common biochemical tests are Indole tests, Catalase tests, oxidase tests, Dnase tests, etc.
5. Motility: Through this microbiological lab technique, the motility capacity of a microorganism is accessed to differentiate amongst other microorganisms.
6. Microbial serology: Serological test or serology test or antibody test, is a microbiology lab procedure carried out to determine viral & bacterial antigens and antibodies (IgG and IgM), for helping in diagnosing certain diseases and checking immune status.
There are several types of serological tests such as Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), agglutination, neutralization tests, Western blotting, direct and indirect immunofluorescence.
7. Molecular Analysis: Various molecular techniques including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), random amplified polymorphism deoxyribonucleic acid (RAPD), plasmid profile analysis, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and many more are employed for detecting, classifying, and/or characterizing microorganisms. These techniques are rapid, less laborious, more sensitive, and of great significance to Humans as compared to the conventional method.