History was created last week when 4 new elements were simultaneously added to the periodic table. These elements are :
- Nihonium or Nh , Z = 113
- Moscovium or Mc, Z = 115
- Tennessine or Ts, Z = 117
- Oganesson or Og, Z= 118
The four new elements officially complete the 7th row of the periodic table. In other words the table is now officially complete between hydrogen (Z = 1) to oganesson (Z = 118)
The inorganic chemistry division of IUPAC or International Union of Pure and Applied chemistry has recommended these names for acceptance and after a five-month public review the names will be formally approved by the IUPAC Council.
Claims on discovery were pending for some time and in 2012 independent laboratories were assigned the task to assess the names on discovery of elements 113, 115, 117 and 118. Earlier temporary names were assigned to these elements
Uut or Ununtrium (Z= 113)
Uup or Ununpentium (Z=115)
Uus or Ununseptium (Z= 117)
Uuo or Ununoctium (Z= 118).
IUPAC formed guidelines on naming of new elements and it was decided to name new elements on the basis of
- A mythological concept of character including an astronomical object
- A mineral or similar substance
- A property of the element
- A scientist
The new proposed names are in accordance with these guidelines
Element – 113
Element – 113 is the first element to be discovered in an Asian country. Nihonium(Nh) was proposed by scientists at the RIKEN’s Nishina Centre for Accelerator Based Science in Japan .It is to honour Japan and it literally means “The land of the rising Sun”
Moscovium or element – 115 is named to honour the geographical place of discovery – The Nuclear Research Centre at Dubna in Moscow region in Russia
Element – 117
Element – 117 or Tennessine has been named after the State of Tennessee where Oak Ridge National laboratory is located. Other centres which contributed to discovery were Vanderbilt University ((USA)and the University of Tennessee at Knoxville(USA).
Element – 118
The name element -118 is in honour of Prof Yuri Oganessian for his contributions to trans- actinide elements research. The discoveries were the result of collaborative efforts of Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna in Russia and Lawrence Livermore National laboratory in USA.
The new elements do not occur naturally in nature. They can be created in labs only and have a fleeting existence. It remained a challenge to observe them for years together. Both IUPAC and International Union of Pure and Applied Physics(IUPAP )are now reviewing the selection of a future joint working group of scientists which will review the results and prepare names of elements of the eighth row of the periodic table.