10 Common Interview Questions on Paper Chromatography

Question 1 – What is the basic principle of Paper Chromatography? Answer – Paper chromatography is a form of liquid chromatography where the components of a mixture of organic compounds get separated as unique spots by unidirectional flow of the developing liquid mobile phase solvent mixture over the filter paper to which a spot of […]

What makes Paper Chromatography a popular technique even today?

Paper chromatography techniques have retained their ground and are extensively used in separation of different classes of compounds ranging from foods, pharmaceuticals, forensic investigations, environmental monitoring, etc. Chromatography in general has seen phenomenal growth in terms of separation and quantitative estimations, softwares, applications and increased automation for matching the requirements of high throughput laboratories. Over […]

Applications of Paper Chromatography

Paper chromatography has evolved over the years and has found widespread applications in separation of molecules of different polarities. Innumerable applications have been reported in analysis of different classes of compounds such as: Amino acids and organic acids Alkaloids Polysaccharides Proteins and peptides Natural and artificial pigments Inorganic cations Plant extracts Typical applications in key […]

Visualisation of Spots in Paper Chromatography

Coloured spots are easily observed on developed chromatograms. However, different approaches need to be adopted when colourless components are to be observed. It is convenient to classify such methods as specific or non-specific. Non-specific methods Iodine chamber – the developed plate is suspended in a closed jar containing a few crystals of iodine for about […]

Paper Chromatography : Sample Preparation and Application

Developing the Chromatogram involves three stages: Sample preparation Sample application Developing of the chromatogram Sample Preparation Samples can come either as liquids or solids. Liquids can be spotted without any pretreatment. However, solid samples need to be dissolved in a suitable solvent as only liquids can be applied to the chromatography paper. Spotting and Developing […]

Choice of Solvents for Paper Chromatography

A solvent plays an important role in resolution of sample constituents on the filter paper. For the purpose use can be made of a single pure solvent, undiluted solvent with water or a mixture of miscible solvents. The greater the distance between the resolved spots (measured by Rf values) better is the solvent mixture combination. […]

Types of Papers and their applications in Paper Chromatography

Paper chromatography makes use of paper which acts as a stationary phase. Paper essentially consists of cellulose fibers which are polymers having – OH functional groups sticking out of the polymer chains. These groups lead to retention and separation of surface absorbed molecules. In practice the separating molecules equilibrate between the layer of adsorbed water […]

Types of Paper Chromatography

Over the years different types of paper chromatography have evolved which have been classified by the direction of flow of the mobile liquid phase Ascending Paper Chromatography As the name suggests the developing solvent moves in an upward direction. Sufficient quantity of mobile phase is poured into the development chamber. Sample and reference are spotted […]

Theory of Paper Chromatographic Separations

Principle of Separation Partition or distribution of components of the sample between a pair of liquid phases is the underlying principle of chromatographic separations. In paper chromatography separations the component is distributed between the water held between the pores of filter paper and the liquid phase which travels along the filter paper. Separation results from […]

Evolution of Paper Chromatography

Chromatography today is a top ranking technique for separation and quantification of components of organic liquid or gas phase mixtures. Several innovations of the technique have contributed to speed of analysis and lowering of detection limits but it is remarkably surprising that all the variants ranging from simplest paper chromatography, column chromatography, thin- layer chromatography […]