Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR)- a versatile FT-IR sampling tool

FT-IR Spectroscopy is an acknowledged tool for identification and characterization of materials on the basis of presence of functional groups present. The technique has been abundantly used for analysis of solids, liquids and gaseous samples. However, in most cases some sample treatment becomes necessary to get meaningful results. Traditionally liquids and solids have been analyzed […]

Commonly used Colour Measurement Scales

Colour measurements are the basis of several quantitative estimations and are based on light absorbance by the coloured medium. In addition to absorption several methods make use of colour filters for visual matching of colours. The basis of colour of different materials was discussed earlier. Now a question arises can colour be measured and what […]

Understanding of light dispersing elements in a spectrometer

It is a well-known fact that ordinary white light comprises of a mix of different wavelengths or colours. We are all familiar with the different colours of the rainbow which are in fact different colours comprising white light. White light is seldom used as such in spectroscopic analysis though of visible light source is a […]

How to overcome interferences in UV – Visible Spectroscopic studies?

Ideally the absorbance spectrum of a solution containing a single analyte should be a single absorption band at the wavelength of maximum absorbance. However, in real samples the spectrum gets influenced by presence of other interfering species. Such interferences can be easily eliminated by adopting different approaches covered in the article. Interferences in UV- Visible […]

How to select the right cuvette material for UV- VIS absorbance studies?

Common laboratory absorption studies involve liquids – either as pure solvents or solutions of light absorbing compounds in transparent solvents. Such studies are made possible by making use of containers of precise dimensions, usually 10 mm path length, which are transparent to the wavelength of light required for the purpose. Such absorbance cells are also […]

Double Beam Advantages Over Single Beam Spectrophotometers

A clear understanding on the concept of Double beam and Single beam optics is an absolute must for a spectroscopist. A common misconception is that in a double beam instrument two beams pass simultaneously through the sample cell and provide a sensitivity advantage over single beam systems. For that matter the more the number of beams passing through the sample cell better will be the sensitivity. Today’s Lab Byte session will help dispel such misconceptions. In Double beam design one beam  component passes through the sample cell and the other through the blank solvent taken  in the reference cell. This arrangement helps compensate errors arising due to changes in any of the operational parameters such as power line fluctuations, stray light and solvent absorbance during absorbance observations which contributes to higher accuracy and precision of results.

Similarities and Dissimilarities between GC/MS and LC/MS

GC and HPLC are both chromatography separation techniques which are immensely popular with the analytical chemist. Over the past several decades Mass spectroscopy has contributed significantly to the scope of applications of both GC and HPLC. Hyphenated mass spectroscopy techniques have made possible separation and identification of complex mixtures in a matter of minutes which in earlier […]

How LC – MS/MS Scores over LC – MS?

LC – MS/MS offers a range of benefits to the analytical chemist and such features are highlighted in the present article. However, before listing of such benefits you should appreciate the elementary differences between the two techniques. Single quadrupole mass spectrometer A single quadrupole mass spectrometer comprises of a single quadrupole assembly Q1 used for […]

Additional benefits offered by Mass sensitive detectors over other Liquid Chromatography detectors

HPLC is well established as an analytical technique. Why is HPLC the most popular technique in analytical laboratories today? highlights the reasons that justify this claim. The wealth of information made available by commonly used HPLC detectors can be enriched further by mass sensitive detectors. The idea behind writing this article is not to undermine the contributions […]

Mass Discrimination and Analysis in Mass Spectroscopy

Mass Spectroscopy essentially involves ionization of neutral molecules and fragmentation followed by grouping of the ionized species on the basis of their charge to mass (m/z) ratios for detection and quantitation. The present article discusses the common available options for discrimination of the ionized mass fragments and their analysis. Quadrupole Mass Analyzers A quadrupole mass […]